Nepal, is a landlocked Himalayan country in South Asia. It is bordered by China (Tibet) to the north and by India (Bihar, Sikkim, Uttar
Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal) to the south, east and west. For a small territory, the Nepali landscape is uncommonly diverse, ranging
from the humid Terai in the south to the lofty Himalayas in the north. Eight of the world's ten highest mountains are in Nepal, including
Mount Everest. The country is famous for: tourism, trekking, hiking, camping, mountain biking, national wildlife parks, jungle safaris, river
rafting, sport fishing, and its many beautiful temples and places of worship.
Kathmandu is the capital and largest city. Other main cities include Dharan, Thimi, Pokhara, Biratnagar, Lalitpur (Patan), Bhaktapur. other
main towns includes Birendranagar, Bharatpur, Nepal, Siddhartanagar (Bhairahawa), Birganj (Birgunj), Butwal, Janakpur, Nepalganj (Nepalgunj),
Hetauda, Damak, Dhangadhi, and Mahendranagar.
After a long and rich history, during which the region splintered and coalesced under a variety of absolute rulers, Nepal became a
constitutional monarchy in 1990. However, the monarchy retained many important and ill-defined powers. This arrangement was marked by
increasing instability, both in the parliament and, since 1996, in large swathes of the country that have been fought over by Maoist
insurgents. The Maoists, alienated from mainstream political parties, went underground and started a guerrilla war against both monarchy and
mainstream political parties. They have sought to overthrow feudal institutions, including the monarchy, and establish a Maoist state.
This led to the Nepali Civil War in which more than 15,000 people have died. After the intra-party conflict within the ruling Nepali Congress
(NC) on the issue of continuation of state of emergency to deal with Maoist insurgents, then prime minister Sher Bahadur Deuba recommended the
king for the dissolution of lower house seeking a fresh mandate in 2002. The king accepted his recommendation and dissolved the house as per
the constitution. Later on, Deuba recommended the king for the postponement of the parliamentary election on the pretext of insecurity due
to the Maoist insurgency. Then the king sacked Deuba in 2002 on the grounds of not able to hold elections and started ruling through prime
ministers appointed by him. He then unilaterally declared a state of emergency early in 2005 and assumed all executive powers.
Following the 2006 democracy movement, the king agreed to relinquish the sovereign power back to the people and reinstated the dissolved House
of Representatives on April 24, 2006. Using its newly acquired sovereign authority, on May 18, 2006, the newly resumed House of Representative
unanimously passed a motion to curtail the power of the king and declared Nepal a secular state. As of September, 2006, a complete rewrite
of the constitution was still expected to happen in the near future.
As of July 2007, many of Nepal's new political leaders, including the former Maoist rebels, now want the monarchy abolished. The former king
has already lost his powers as head of state and head of the army and the government has decided to stop paying all allowances.
Nepal is one of the richest Trekking Tours in Nepal countries in the world in terms of bio - diversity due to its unique
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